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lyme disease and symptoms | Lyme Disease | what is lyme disease

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The variegated Lyme disease can be described as a multi-system disease. In particular, skin, central nervous system, joints and the heart are affected. The scientists usually divide the course of disease into stages I to III, but in medical practice the less rigid classification into acute (stage I and II) and chronic stage (equivalent to stage III) is often preferred.

Here is a list of stage 1 to 3 signs and disease.

Lyme disease and Symptoms
Lyme disease and Symptoms

It should be noted that any signs of disease may be isolated but may also appear in different combinations with skipping a stage for years.

Lyme Disease 2019: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

A spontaneous healing is possible, especially in the first two disease stages. Endured Lyme disease does not confer immunity to re-infection after a tick bite .

Lyme disease Stage I

In many cases, within 3 days to several weeks after the tick bite, there is a typical reddish-bluish skin discoloration (erythema migrans) at the sting site, which spreads in a ring and can reach a diameter of 5 to 20 centimeters. In the middle of the puncture site is recognizable, around which the redness usually fades. An erythema migrans or wandering red can also occur at one or more other parts of the body, indicating a spread of the bacterium in the organism.

The erythema migrans is to be distinguished from a local harmless skin discoloration as a direct result of the tick bite. The latter generally lacks the brightening in the middle and it remains limited to the actual sting site with a size of one to two centimeters. However, the appearance of the Wanderröte can vary widely, so that every skin change in connection with a tick bite should always be shown to a pediatrician.

Some of the patients also suffer from general symptoms of infection such as fever , muscle, joint and headache , conjunctivitis, sweating, lymph node swelling, fatigue and gastrointestinal discomfort, which may persist or occur for the first time in all stages. For flu- like symptoms after a tick bite, the child should therefore necessarily be examined by a pediatrician.

Lyme disease Stage II

Weeks to six months after the tick bite, burning neurological pains appear in the vicinity of the erythema migrans with disturbances of the sensory perception and paralysis (Bannwart syndrome); Consequences of inflammation of the nerve roots and failure of the cranial nerves except the olfactory nerve. Also vision or hearing disorders as well as an inflammation of the heart can occur with a Lyme disease. This is the typical clinical picture in adults.

The involvement of the nervous system (neuroborreliosis), however, shows in children to 90% in a mostly unilateral facial nerve palsy (facial palsy). The children can not close the eye on the affected side, do not frown on one side and do not whistle, as a corner of the mouth hangs limp. Much less common is meningitis ( meningitis ) with many ailments such as fever , vomiting and severe headaches.

In particular, children and adolescents occasionally develop a small, firm, benign, blue-red skin tumor (borrelia lymphocytoma), which predominantly occurs in the earlobes, nipples, and genitals, where it persists for weeks to months.

Relatively rare are heart disease, such as heart muscle and pericarditis, inflammation of the eye or the muscles.

Lyme disease Stage III

Six months to years after the tick bite, around 5% of adults and children may experience joint involvement (Lyme arthritis ) associated with persistent or relapsing pain and swelling, predominantly in the knee and hock joints. 
In addition, a chronic skin change is known, which is extremely rare in children. In Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans Herxheimer the affected skin on the end limbs and extensor surfaces of feet, legs, arms and hands is initially extremely thin, hairless and changed in their pigmentation (similar to parchment paper), before it comes in the final stages to strong thickening. The disorder is accompanied by pain or itching.

Almost always, the peripheral nervous system is damaged in the affected areas of the skin. One speaks then in connection with the occurring sensations of an arthropathy or polyneuropathy. 
Very rarely there is a permanent inflammation of the brain and spinal cord (encephalomyelitis) with partial or complete paralysis of the legs or arms. Possible long-term consequences are speech or coordination disorders as well as epileptic seizures .

Lyme disease

or Lyme disease?

The word borreliosis is derived from the name of the causative bacterium Borrelia. The place Lyme in Connecticut / USA was named after there occurred frequent joint inflammation as a result of tick bites.

Lyme disease is found in Europe, North America and Asia below 1,500 vertical meters. In Germany, with an estimated 60,000 new infections per year, it is the most common tick- borne disease that occurs nationwide with local risk areas. According to estimates, 60,000 to more than 200,000 Germans a year fall ill.

However, the Infection Protection Act does not provide for nationwide registration. Due to country regulations, however, Lyme disease is notifiable in some federal states, so that reliable figures are available only for these states: Between 2015 and 2017, a total of 30,296 new cases were reported there. In 2018, a total of 13,347 cases were reported. Bavaria was hit hardest with around 3,500 to nearly 5,000 cases a year. Experts suspect that not all cases are reported, as well as the health insurance clearly more diseases are borreliosis billed.

Since ticks are active from about 7 degrees Celsius, infections occur mainly in the warm season of March / April to October, with more than half fall on the months of June to September.

Depending on the region, 5 to 35% of the ticks are contaminated with the bacterium. The transfer starts about 12 to 24 hours after the start of the suction process. About 5% of all ticks infected with Borrelia bacteria cause infection, and in about 2% of cases there is Lyme disease with recognizable symptoms, mainly affecting the skin, joints and central nervous system.

Lyme diseas causes

Lyme disease is caused by four different species of the spiral bacterium Borrelia, which belong to the so-called complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (from the Latin “in the broad sense”) and were discovered in 1982 by the American physician Willy Burgdorfer. The eight-legged ticks, which belong to the arachnids, mainly stick to small rodents and birds during their blood meal. From then on, the bacteria live in the digestive tract of the tick. Ticks can infest several hundred vertebrate species in addition to humans, deer and deer are common host animals.

Ticks undergo three stages of development: larva, nymph and adult tick. At each stage, the individual animal stings only once, swelling to a multiple of its “sober” body size. Only the female animals suck blood.

Ticks sit in woodlands, parks and gardens on shrubs, tall grasses, herbs and shrubs, waiting for their host to strip them as they pass by. They look for a suitable skin area on the host – prefers damp, dark, warm places – then they penetrate there with their suction apparatus. In doing so, they release saliva into the wound, which contains painkiller and anticoagulant substances. For this reason, many tick bites go unnoticed.

Borrelia grates from the intestine of the tick into the salivary gland and from there via the branch canal into the human blood. In the bloodstream, they multiply and infect various organs. This explains why the likelihood of transmission in the first 12 hours that the tick is on the skin is low and then increases significantly.

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