Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes: Causes Symptoms and Treatments

What Is ?

: The two types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Both make blood sugar levels higher than normal but they do so in different ways.

Type 1 diabetes happens when the immune system attacks and destroys the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. Kids with type 1 diabetes need insulin to help keep their blood sugar levels in a normal range.

Type 2 diabetes is different. A person with type 2 diabetes still produces insulin but the body doesn’t respond to it normally. Glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy (a problem called insulin resistance). This raises the blood sugar level, so the pancreas works hard to make even more insulin. Eventually, this strain can make the pancreas unable to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal.

People with insulin resistance may or may not develop type 2 diabetes — it all depends on whether the pancreas can make enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal. High blood sugar levels that happen a lot are a sign that a person has developed diabetes.

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What are the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

This type of diabetes develops gradually, over the years, so the signs and symptoms can seem subtle, and you might think it is something you “just have to live with.” If you are overweight or obese, this is the major symptom, but not everyone will be overweight. In fact, weight loss can be a symptom.

Other symptoms and signs include:

  1. Fatigue
  2. Frequent urination
  3. Excess thirst
  4. Blurry or cloudy vision
  5. Wounds that won’t heal
  6. Tingling or numbness in the feet
  7. Erectile dysfunction (ED)
  8. Dark skin under the armpits and around the groin

What are the Diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes?

A doctor can diagnose type 2 diabetes with blood tests that measure blood glucose levels. Many people discover they have high blood sugar during a routine screening test, but anyone who experiences symptoms should see a doctor.

Treatment aims to keep blood glucose levels stable at a healthy level and prevent complications. The main ways to do this are through lifestyle measures.

These include:

  • following a healthful diet
  • reaching and maintaining a healthy weight and body mass index (BMI)
  • doing physical activity
  • getting enough sleep
  • avoiding or quitting smoking
  • taking medications or insulin as the doctor recommends
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What causes Type 2 diabetes?

About 90% of people with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes. We all need insulin to live. It does an essential job. It allows the glucose in our blood to enter our cells and fuel our bodies. When you have Type 2 diabetes, your body still breaks down carbohydrate from your food and drink and turns it into glucose.

The pancreas responds to this by releasing insulin. But because this insulin can’t work properly, blood glucose (also called sugar) levels keep rising.So more insulin is released. For some people with Type 2 diabetes this can eventually tire the pancreas out, meaning their body makes less and less insulin. This causes even higher blood sugar levels.

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